here are many writings that question the possibility of the existence of the public sphere in the Arabo-Islamic deliberative context similar to the one in the West, which Habermas expounded on in his referential thesis entitled The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere – An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society.

The Public Sphere in the Arab World and the Will of the Future
Egyptian demonstrators hold the flags of Arab nations at Cairo's Tahrir Square on May 13, 2011 during a protest calling for national unity after attacks on Egyptian churches, and solidarity with the Palestinians as they mark the "Nakba" or "catastrophe" which befell them following Israel's establishment in 1948. AFP PHOTO / KHALED DESOUKI (Photo credit should read KHALED DESOUKI/AFP/Getty Images)