CAIRO, July 05, 2013 (AFP)
CAIRO, July 05, 2013 (AFP)
Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood is the oldest and biggest representative of Sunni Islam in the country.
Its supreme guide, Mohammed Badie, told supporters of toppled president Mohamed Morsi on Friday that protesters will remain mobilised until Morsi’s return after his ouster by the military.
A history of the movement:
– March 1928: Muslim Brotherhood founded in the Suez Canal city of Ismailiya by imam Hassan al-Banna, who was born in 1906. Banna takes on the title of guide of the movement.
It begins as a welfare group practising an Islamic ideology that caters to middle and lower classes in an Egypt ruled by the aristocracy and under British influence.
It then takes on a political role, based on opposition to the British presence and in support of an Islamic state.
– December 1948: a Muslim Brother assassinates prime minister Mahmud Fahmi al-Nuqrashi, who had ordered the Brotherhood dissolved. The group becomes the object of brutal repression.
– February, 1949: Banna is murdered by the secret police.
– 1954: The Brotherhood supports Arab nationalist Gamal Abdel Nasser’s revolution, but differences and distrust quickly lead to a split and fierce crackdowns on the movement. After an assassination attempt, Nasser decides again to ban it.
Between 1954 and 1970, during Nasser’s presidency, members of the movement are arrested in their thousands or go underground.
– 1966: Sayyed Qotb, a theoretician behind the movement who inspired its radicalisation, hanged by Nasser’s regime.
– 1971: Anwar Sadat succeeds Nasser. The Brotherhood has tense relations with the regime, which grants its leadership amnesties but officially bans the movement.
Sadat, vilified by many in the wider Arab world for signing a peace treaty with Israel without obtaining concessions for the Palestinians, is killed in 1981 by former members of the movement who have become extremists.
– 1984: president Hosni Mubarak’s regime recognises the movement as a religious organisation but refuses its registration as a political party. So the Brotherhood fields candidates on independent tickets.
After a breakthrough in 2005 legislative elections in which it gains one fifth of parliamentary seats, it emerges empty-handed from the first round of the 2010 elections and boycotts the second round, denouncing massive fraud.
– February 2011: Mubarak steps down and hands his powers to the military on the 18th day of a popular uprising. Only the Brotherhood’s youth take part in the early stages, but the Islamist movement sides with it progressively.
The Brotherhood founds its political wing, the Freedom and Justice Party.
– June 30, 2012: Mohamed Morsi, who won 51.73 percent of the presidential vote, sworn in as Egypt’s first head of state elected in a free vote, and also the first Islamist and civilian to head the country.
– July 3, 2013: The army ousts Morsi, replacing him with head of the Supreme Constitutional Court Adly Mansour, pending new elections.
On July 4, Morsi is transferred to the defence ministry where he is detained “preventively”.
On July 5, Mansour orders the dissolution of the Shura Council, the Islamist-led legislative assembly.