El Jadida - Up to the protectorate period, the traditional form of state (Makhzen) governed Morocco with an administrative system based on the participation of regional mandarins called qaids. The periphery land named by colonial anthropology blad siba (land of dissidence) existing beyond the pale was set in contrast with blad l-Makhzen (the land of the pale), the agriculturally rich and economically exploitable regions under the central control of the sultanate (such land during the Protectorate was named ‘le Maroc utile’). Blad siba, from the colonial economics perspective, referred to the geographical zones and entities (mountain chains and the pre-Sahara) sporadically under the control of the Makhzen (such land during the Protectorate was named 'le Maroc unitile'). And because such vast territories were remote from the direct control of the centralized rule of the Makhzen, powerful qaids were appointed there to govern tribes, collect taxes and supervise the agricultural production.

Dr.